Random comments

XMAS PICNIC: Sat down (two hours late) in the middle of Vic Park with a huge tofu salad, but no buns/cutlery/plates! Bottles of drink but no cups! Rang around and got someone to bring them.

“You smell nice.”
“I washed my face and changed my socks. Didn’t shower, though.”

“I’ll take my wheelie bin to the CAAH same-sex marriage rally. It has a huge stereo and you can carry a 3ft pirate radio antenna off it. But I’ll need help, I’m not carrying the 3ft antenna by myself.”

“In some non-western societies, the elders initiate the children into sexual activity – it’s accepted.”

“I like watching Sydney schoolboys loosening their ties on the bus.”
“Yeah, let’s go cruising for schoolboys!”

“I have a public announcement – three people living in the same house have got crabs since the Sex Party. So check yourself and take care of yourself.”
“I don’t have them.”
“Shall I include that in the minutes?”
“Yeah!”
“How long is the life cycle for crabs?”
“A few weeks – dunno.”

“My mum got a $400 fine for smoking at Strathfield railway station. Even the cops were surprised at the fine. They had a prosecution statement! The magistrate threw the case out.”

N banging frantically on a toilet door: “Quick! Open up! We need some toilet paper – it’s an EMERGENCY!!!”
“What?”
“I spilled Coca Cola all over the amps.”
“They’re still working – it can’t be THAT bad!”

“I don’t want to be consumed for someone’s PhD or film project.”

Nathanwi: “Consume me! Consume me!!!”

“I was OK with being the drug runner at QR. But now people I don’t even know keep ringing me all the time for pills. What should I tell them?”

“Everyone thinks I’m a total dork. I’m teased cos I like cooking. And cos of my art – doodles, really – and cos I like the Wombles.”

“O said he’d give me a blowjob tonite.”

“Don’t worship DJs – anyone can be a fucking DJ.”

The Great Debate: F was given five minutes to convince us to go to the Newtown Hotel instead of the Impy. Why? “Cos it’s the only pub that has Shout to the Top by Style Council on the jukebox.” She lost, and it turned out the Impy had it on the jukebox too.

“I use Gaydar but get too many replies that just say: ‘I want to be your girlfriend’. They could at least invite me out first!”
– “Yeah – I had a girl on Gaydar who emailed me saying: ‘I think you’re cute – I’ve downloaded your pic and carry it in my wallet’.”
– “Freaky!”

QR Bar volunteers: “We only sell cola by the cup.”
“But I want it in a can!”
“We could wash out a tin and pour it into that.”

“Let’s get a contingent for the Down-to-Earth confest. Be close to nature. There’ll be no toilets – pee where you are and poo into a hole in the ground.”

“I’m doing a thesis on Christianity and gayness. It’s about eunuchs. Jesus advocates same sex relationships as the highest form of loving.”

“Did you know [the Virgin] Mary was raped? And she was terrified by the angel.”

“I got a book from the Scientologists that says you can make a drunk person sober by pointing to objects and making them name them. By directing their attention. They even claimed it worked for drug users!”
– “If a drunk person was driving and you had 10 Scientologists in the car, pointing things out, they’d probably make it home OK. Like – ‘there’s the steering wheel’, ‘there’s another car!’, ‘there’s a lamppost’ …”

“I don’t want to live on this planet anymore. I want to go somewhere where everyone’s nice.”

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Film festival meeting

SCENE: N, K and T are feasting on vegan soup when C arrives. There’s an amazing fluoro artwork on the wall by a bloke who decorated the Kit Kat Club in Berlin. N’s three flatmates are sitting nearby in the living room.

“Let’s not do two days. I don’t have the energy.
“I’d never thought it was two days – only a night.”
“Three of us work full-time.” I can’t get any extra time off work.”
“That clashes with Biversity.”
“Is that any good?”
“Yeah, really friendly.”
“We could put some sofas around and they can recover.”
“Dunno if I can make it then – some of us might go to Queeruption in Berlin.”
“That’s two weeks after the State of Emergency gig.”

“Which day is easter egg day? I’ve got a two-year-old.”
“On Sunday!”
“I didn’t know that.”
“No, that he had a two-year-old.”

[Pointing to a can of Coke]: “That’s the product of the evil corporate machine!”
“I’m tired.”
“Can I have one?”
“Yeah, but it’s at room temperature. I’ll get some ice.”
“Dunno if I’m going to Berlin – it depends on my mental health.”
“There’s nothing a couple of Coca Colas and a stint in a mental hospital can’t fix.”

“Can we get films reflecting different sexualities and agendas? We need a political film, an activist film and a fluffy film.”
“There’s a good film about intersex people who are campaigning for unisex toilets.”
“But it’s quite expensive.”
“It’s free if you’re a worthy group.”
“We’ve got more chance of getting the film free if we have proof of campaigning for unisex toilets.”
“I hate unisex toilets.”

“We could send them pix of us out the front of the unisex toilets at Home and the Civic.”

“I hate Home – you can’t get near a mirror cos all the guys are reapplying their foundation.”

“Did you see The L-Word last nite? It’s rubbish. Nobody’s like that.
“They had a bunch of lesbians talking about bush confidence!
“It’d be good to do a sendup skit with some butch dykes saying: `I’m really worried about bush confidence’ in a totally non-worried way. You wouldn’t even have to change the script.”
“I like Sex and the City. Especially when I’m stoned.”

“Performance – open mike – that’s easy to organise. Publicity, legal info. Food. Art. Discussion ideas. OK – we’ll take two tasks each and report back.”

“We need more members. Can we get those girls who came last week – I’d like to suck them in.” “Not suck them in! Attract them!”
“Help, I’m stuck to my chair! I can’t move! Queeruption has captured me!”

“Are you going to recycle those Coke cans?”

“Yeah, put them there and the recycling fairy will take them away.”

“We’ll send out a wish list. People will plug in when they see it.”
“I’ll check out the buildings. Maybe that cake shop.
“What if the cops catch us painting the walls?”
“If the paint’s fresh and they find the materials we’ve had it.

“Wait, I’ll see you to the front door.”
“Why? Are you going to kiss us goodnite?”
“No, he’s going to fuck us goodnite.”
“Well make it quick. I’ve gotta go.”
“We’re all going in the same direction? We could have brought one car instead of three!”

Opposition Leader John Howard

These two stories I wrote on the same day.

A bit difficult to read, so some excerpts:

Car dealers back Libs’ FBT stance

Federal Opposition leader John Howard addressed more than 400 people who attended the fringe benefits tax protest rally at Denlo Motors, Parramatta, last week.

Plainclothes security guards mingled with the crowd before Mr Howard, who attended the rally 30 minutes late and arrived with a police escort.

Mr Howard said Treasurer Paul Keating had said the Hawke Government brought in the FBT to eliminate rorts and stop the “haemorraghing of revenue”.

“FBT was introduced clumsily and has done enormous damage to the industry, sending it into a deep recession.”

He emphasised the Liberal Party’s proposed abolition of the fringe benefits tax to a cheering audience and attacked Labor Party criticisms of his proposed reduction of $1.5 billion in payments to the States.

CAR DEALERS FACING CRISIS

Parramatta car dealers are facing their worst crisis in 28 years, local dealers claimed at the fringe benefits tax protest rally in Parramatta last week.

Federal Opposition leader John Howard addressed the rally at Denlo Motors.

Mr Howard said, “FBT was introduced clumsily and has done enormous damage to the industry, sending it into a deep recession. The consequences and loss of sales and profitability has been immense.”

Parramatta dealer John Trivett, of Trivett Classic, said, “This is the worst crisis since the Menzies era of the 1960s when people stopped buying cars because of credit restrictions.”

He said Parramatta was the busiest and largest car sales strip in Australia.

He said the smaller dealers on Parramatta Rd were most threatened by the FBT (which was introduced in July 1986) and increased sales tax, but the larger dealers, which were mostly based in Church St, would continue to operate.

“The small dealers are hurt because they don’t have a lot of financial clout. The effect of these taxes will change the face of Parramatta Rd.”

Local dealers claimed they would go out of business if the fringe benefits and current sales taxes continued.

At the rally, a message was read out from Paul Betar, formerly of Betar and Coorey, Parramatta Rd, which closed on May 26 last year, leaving 14 staff unemployed.

Mr Betar had attended the rally last year, and his message said: “The FBT put the boot in when we were down. The bid spending, big taxing Government has destroyed the will to have a go.”

My stories on John Howard - Parramatta Advertiser
My stories on John Howard - Parramatta Advertiser

Christopher Skase interview

Interview I wrote about Christopher Skase.
Interview I wrote about Christopher Skase.

After the interview, I joined him for lunch with 60 business people. I was seated at his table, opposite Pixie – who was wearing a diamond-encrusted ring in the shape of the letter “P”. Skase was wearing a tie that featured criss-crossed tennis racquets.

I wrote the story, below, from the same event, as SEQ was a big regional topic.  I was always reluctant to show these pieces as a sub-editor had automatically added a “u” to Qintex.  Most embarrassing – the sub-editing was done in the evenings, as it as a daily newspaper, and noone checked with me. Argh!

By 1989 Skase’s TV and tourist industry companies had collapsed, $1billion in debt. He started moving money offshore in July 1989, planning his escape.

Interview I wrote for The Maryborough Chronicle
Interview I wrote for The Maryborough Chronicle

NSW Fire Brigades Commissioner

(written for a Fairfax fire safety feature – 2009)

NSW Fire Brigades Commissioner Greg Mullins has learnt to dread winter since he began fighting fires 37 years ago. “Many more people lose their lives in house fires in winter – more than in bushfires,” Mr Mullins says.

“What we consistently find is that members of the public have no idea how quickly fires happen – if fire doesn’t overwhelm you, the smoke will.”

During the three months of winter last year, there was a total of 1542 reported house fires in NSW, 10 deaths and 217 injuries. “That’s about 15 fires a day,” Mr Mullins says. “People need to be very vigilant during winter, particularly in the kitchen when they’re cooking more – 44 per cent of fires start there.”

He said basic precautions include having enough smoke alarms, devising an evacuation plan, meeting outside and ringing 000.

Electrical appliances, open fires, lint filters in clothes driers, using more than one double adapter and knocking over or covering heaters are other dangers.

Mr Mullins says he follows the safety suggestions – as do most fireys – because of the awful fatalities he’s encountered.

“It’s so frustrating to see someone who hasn’t made it out and they’re not even burnt – they were overcome by smoke – when a $10 smoke alarm could have saved them.

“There’s a human side to all fireys. We’re all normal men and women. I can rattle off details of every fatality I’ve seen. Afterwards I go home and hug my kids.”

There are other simple mistakes that cost lives. “Nine people out of 100 remove the batteries from their smoke alarms because they’re tired of false alarms or wanted to use the batteries for another appliance and forgot to replace them.” He shakes his head.

He says anyone who sleeps with the door closed should have a smoke alarm in the bedroom, because “if smoke doesn’t reach an alarm it won’t set the alarm off”. “There have been fatalities after people kicked a blanket onto a heater during the night.”

He advises if you have a fire in a mattress or sofa, call the fire station because these items often smoulder and flare up again hours later. “It’s a free call. Fireys are waiting to help and protect people. There’s no point in thinking you’ve put out a fire and then wake up at 3am and find you’re not going to make it.”

He encourages every household to overcome complacency and follow the precautions. “It’s better to be safe than sorry. I make my family do a fire drill and I vacuum the smoke alarm vents once a month. I tell them off if someone has let lint build up in the drier. My family tease me and say: “Give it a rest!”, but they know it’s important.”

Mr Mullins even had a fire in his own home at 3am during a storm when rain got into an electrical junction box under the house and set fire to timber under the floor.

“The smoke alarms went off. The rain mostly contained the fire. I put it out,” Mr Mullins says. ““People think it won’t happen to them. Complacency is the biggest enemy. Don’t think you’re safe – it can happen to anyone.”

He says it’s best to have a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher handy which can be used on electrical fires as well and you won’t get electrocuted. “You don’t have time during a fire to select which extinguisher to use.”

He says sometimes people are reluctant to dial 000 and fireys are abused by a crowd for taking too long to get there. “I ask, ‘Who phoned?’ They all think someone else did. It’s better for us to get more calls, so ring. We can build a better picture of what’s happening while we’re on our way.”

If you’re concerned about living in a high-rise city apartment block or security building which has only one exit, Mr Mullins says well equipped modern fire trucks mean firefighters can “get in anywhere”. “We can put up a ladder or use this,” Mr Mullins says grinning, lifting his boot. “It’s called a master key.”

Fat people are treated like crap

As the war on obesity rages, fuelled by Federal and State Government-sponsored strategies, spare a thought for the thousands who are genetically destined to be overweight.

Obesity experts didn’t want to go on the record officially with statistics because specific large-scale studies haven’t been done, but they gave a range from 21,000 Australians to 200,000 who are meant to be big.

As part of natural diversity, about one to two per cent of the worldwide population have a Body Mass Index (BMI) that’s greater than 40. In addition, there are those who have develop medical conditions or are taking medications that cause weight gain.

It can be difficult living in a society where large people are generally viewed as unattractive, weak-willed, lazy, unfit, and gluttonous, and costing a fortune in health care.

Some overweight people accept their size and reject terms such as “morbid obesity” and “overweight”. They reclaim the word “fat”, but didn’t want their real names used because of the stigma.

Anne, 32, turned up to a show at the Sydney Opera House only to find that the chair was too small. “I had to sit on the steps next to my seat, as it was too narrow for my hips. The staff did not have a problem with it but I felt self-conscious and embarrassed.”

Anne describes the negativity she’s experienced as mostly “interpersonal”. “People feel entitled to shout abuse at me for being fat and strangers approach me with suggestions on diet and exercise.

“Parents use me as a cautionary tale, pointing and loudly telling their children that if they eat too many lollies they’ll end up like me.

“I try to eat a fairly balanced diet, but I’m not obsessive. I have quite an active life and no car, so I walk a lot every day out of necessity.

“I’ve spent probably the best part of 10 years learning to accept myself as I am and to see myself as beautiful. I found out about the `Health At Every Size’ concept. I recognise that my body is strong, it works, it does everything I need it to do… the rest is aesthetics and there’s no right or wrong for that.”

Laura, 42, has a hormonal medical condition, and doesn’t own a set of scales. “People make derogatory jokes and it’s not considered anything other than funny. One of the ladies I work with regularly calls overweight people ‘fat f—ers’ and everyone laughs. Who am I to say, ‘Sorry that’s offensive to me’ when there’s a room of people laughing? I learnt to just laugh along.”

Hanging out with slimmer friends is discouraging. “My friends go pubbing and clubbing and don’t invite me. I know it’s because they are all size 10 to 12s and I’m not. I look at their Facebook accounts and there are pictures of events I’ve been at but there are no photos of me. I also had my photo taken with friends only to see on Facebook that I’ve been cut out of the picture and that really hurts. It’s as if they don’t like being associated with a fat chick and it’s not easy to deal with.”

Lara says that when she goes to the gym: “Everyone steals glances and gives me that face which says: ‘Oh my God, a fat person is finally getting off their arse and doing something.’ Then the staff train me way too hard because they think that’ll encourage me, but it only reminds me of what I can’t do and how stupid I look trying.”

She says The Biggest Loser reality show, where large contestants compete to lose weight, is “terrible”. “It’s a reminder of how unacceptable it is to be overweight. It humiliates contestants. It gives friends and colleagues another opportunity to laugh at how dreadful fat people look and how funny it is to watch them try and exercise. I’ve heard those conversations in the tea room. And no one ever seems to mind that I’m standing right there next to them.”

At work, Laura was told during a casual conversation with her superior that she couldn’t advance within the corporation until she’d lost weight. “She said it was so my discipline and self control wouldn’t be questioned. I was so shocked I said nothing. All I could think of was “Oh my god is that what people think of me?” I never went for any jobs there after that.”

But her main peeve is when she loses some weight and everyone says: “Wow, you look so fabulous now.” “They mean well, but they have no idea they have just invalidated me as a person for all the time they have known me before I lost the weight.”

Jenny, in her 50s, was refused income protection insurance for illnesses because her BMI is over 40. On her behalf, an insurance broker contacted many insurance companies and all knocked her back.

“I want insurance because I have mortgages and kids,” Jenny says.

“This insurance thing has floored me because they seem to assume that fatness is a terminal illness. There has been no medical assessment and no option to have one.

“I am a happy and healthy fat person. I have a great professional job earning around $100,000 a year, three post graduate qualifications, a family and lots of friends. I eat healthily and exercise.

“Weightloss surgery is risky but I would get insurance if I took that risk.”

An Investment and Financial Services Association spokesman said there wasn’t a set industry benchmark, though some insurance companies have loadings for people with a BMI above 30. He said a financial planner could “negotiate something but  not a lot of companies offer it”.

Meanwhile, Jenny says fat people are “the new social pariahs, but we can’t hide like smokers do”. “I hate wording like the ‘war against obesity’, because it’s a war against me, and other people like me. People shout abuse and stare all the time.

“I know a young woman who was so ashamed of her size that she lost her Centrelink cheque because she would not leave the house to look for work.

“I have done a lot of work to love myself as I am, and was lucky enough to find the US email group Fatdykes which has been a lifesaver.”

She said people are often told to lose large amounts of weight before doctors will bother trying to find a cause for their health problems.

“Poor medical treatment is a very common story. Every time I change doctors they want to measure my blood pressure and blood sugar, even if I just want to get treatment for a cold.”

Jake, 42, regularly does a 25-kilometre walk around the city on the weekends, or six to eight hours of “solid dancing at a party”.

He found being a long-time member of the social club, Harbour City Bears, has been helpful. The group is for large, gay men and their admirers, and meets weekly in Sydney.

“Harbour City Bears is accepting of all body types and sizes. I found that I, and a lot of my friends, have grown happier, and healthier, in this environment.

“The greatest treasure of the human race is its diversity. We are not Barbie and Ken dolls, unfeeling plastic extracted from one mould. We are all people, and deserve to be treated with respect and acceptance.

“I won’t call you a mindless gym junkie if you don’t call me a lazy fat ass.”

OBSTACLES

Some of the activities that overweight people can’t do includes amusement park rides, bungee jumping and jet skiing. On the health front, they’re usually denied access to invitro fertilisation and the right to adopt for failing the medical test. While there is no BMI benchmark, a spokeswoman for the NSW Department of Community Services, which arranges adoptions, said applicants must have “appropriate age and fitness to have a reasonable expectation of retaining health and vigour to raise a child until adulthood”.

Obesity is blamed for causing an increased risk or contributing to asthma, arthritis, dementia, kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, strokes, hypertension, colon and breast cancer,  gall bladder and respiratory diseases.

Insurance company studies estimate obesity can wipe up to eight years off life expectancy. Some academics want to label obesity itself as a “disease” though this is an ongoing worldwide debate.

Some hospitals won’t allow operations on obese people because it can be more expensive due to complications, and new hips and knees can wear out sooner.

Dr John Quinn, the executive director of surgical affairs for the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, says morbid obesity “greatly increases” the risks of surgery.

He said weight-loss gastric band surgery has different risks and these are offset by the prospect of a safer outcome for other, more major, surgery.

“The need for joint replacements is often caused by obesity,” Dr Quinn says. “If there are no other changes in the person’s lifestyle, then the surgery doesn’t work.” He said it’s “more difficult and complicated” to perform surgery on obese patients by getting access to organs, there’s more chance of wound infections, delayed healing, respiratory complications and an “astronomically increased” chance of Deep Vein Thrombosis before and after surgery, cardio problems and anaesthesia problems.

Lawyer Mirko Bagaric, who writes about moral and political philosophy, said private institutions  trying to make a profit are entitled to “make different judgments” to the public sector which has to treat everyone as they are.

“Health care is about minimising pain and distress. Hospitals don’t exist to only treat healthy people,” he says.

“We could say that some people drive too much instead of taking public transport. Should we refuse to spend money on motorists who get into accidents? It’s absurd.

“Is there anything really wrong with being overweight? No one has a pristine life.”

As for surgery being more risky, Bagaric said: “It might be, but the risk and expense is worth it if there will be a better health outcome.

“So what if it’s more expensive? Fat people pay taxes too. It’s repugnant to not alleviate preventable suffering. Everyone’s entitled to health care.”

He said there was no reason to prevent fat people from adopting. “The point of adopting is to advance the needs of the child. There is no proof that fat people are less equipped to be good parents or worse than others – they should have the same rights.”

He says it’s the “height of arrogance” to judge the whole person on one criterion.

“We all want to be the ideal weight but for some people their wiring is different. They’re not moral or social retards. Being overweight can’t be comfortable. Try putting yourself in another person’s shoes. The time for judgments is over.”

Health promotion advocate Lily O’Hara, an academic on the Sunshine Coast, is a board member for the international Association for Size Diversity and Health.

“There’s no local formal group in Australia that advocates for the Health at Every Size paradigm and there’s a need for one,'” Ms O’Hara says.

“The Government’s propaganda is very negative and derogatory – people are marginalised and oppressed. Losing weight is made so important by the dieting industry, television and governments.

“You can’t use terms such as epidemic, war, battle and timebomb to frighten people to change their body shape. As the ‘war on obesity’ rhetoric increases, so does the fat-hating community and there’s an increase in the rates of fat people vomiting, starving and smoking.

“Telling people to ‘just try harder’ doesn’t work or lead to sustainable changes.”

Professor Paul Zimmet, the director of the International Diabetes Institute, and an expert in obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention, says the terms, “war on obesity” and “obesity epidemic” could make individuals feel persecuted, but this is outweighed by raising political awareness. “Because of these terms, six years ago, it became a Federal election issue for Howard and Latham. There was increased funding and lots of national action.

“Epidemic is not a loose term. National surveys in 2000 show 60 per cent of Australians are obese or overweight. This has a huge economic cost to the nation.”

Professor Ian Caterson, the director of the Institute of Obesity, Nutrition and Exercise at the University of Sydney, agreed: “Epidemic is a good term because it makes people and politicians aware of the extent of the problem. In a lot of ways, obesity is damaging to health.”

He said different terms should be used for various audiences. “For example, we don’t say to children that we’re having a war on them – we talk to the parents. For adults, yes, war is a good term.”

While some obese people can live to a ripe old age, Professor Caterson says “it’s still not as good as if they were of healthy weight”. “As well as metabolic disease they get mechanical problems – arthritis, difficulty moving, sleep apnoea. They also have a better quality of life when they lose weight – even to such a small thing as buying normal sized clothes.”

In April last year, the Department of Health and Ageing established a taskforce to develop a National Preventative Health Strategy. Its main aims, to be achieved by 2020, are to reverse obesity and reduce smoking and drinking.

Ms O’Hara says a major failing of the strategy is that “two of the focus areas are behaviours and one is a physiological characteristic”.

“The paradigm is all wrong. They’re comparing apples with oranges. Physical activity and food consumption are not the only things synonymous with body size.”

But Professor Paul Zimmet, who is also a member of the Taskforce, says obesity, alcohol and smoking could “all have behavioural and physiological elements”. He said the Preventative Health Taskforce’s report’s title is “Australia the Healthiest Nation”. “The philosophy is to look at the range of issues that lead to a healthy lifestyle.

“People are blaming diet and lack of physical activity but that can’t explain the rising level of obesity in the US,” Professor Zimmet says.

He said other causes could include a mother’s diet during pregnancy, fat-causing viruses or the effects of plastics. “Things to examine are the environment, toxins, bacteria in the gut, urban planning and even the dangers of being mugged when people want to go outside and exercise.

“We need to continue research – there is no simplistic explanation.”

He said the general scientific view is there are people who are “destined to be morbidly obese, through a genetic or hormonal cause, but it’s relatively rare”. “Most natural characteristics have a bell-shaped curve distribution. There are people at both extremes.”

In NSW, the president of the Anti-Discrimination Board, Stepan Kerkyasharian, said the board looks at whether the data being used to treat people differently is reliable. He said that the main cases of size discrimination usually involved employers “needing to buy a bigger chair” for larger staff.

“People are very welcome to ring us anonymously and inquire about their situation – we can discuss it in confidence,”‘ Mr Kerkyasharian said. Phone 9268 5544 or 1800 670 812.

If you’re denied health care, contact the Health Care Complaints Commission on 1800 043 159.

WHAT’S HAPPENING OVERSEAS

*In Canada, the Supreme Court ruled in November that Canadian airlines must provide two seats for the price of one to people who are “functionally obese”.

*In the US, Peggy Howell, public relations director of the National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance, which has 11,000 members, says anti-discrimination laws were changed in several US jurisdictions by individual citizens, grassroots groups and a large union.

Ms Howell cited a successful size-based discrimination case in San Francisco in 2002 where a plus-size fitness instructor, Jennifer Portnick, reached a settlement with Jazzercise Inc. Jazzercise changed its requirement that its instructors must look trim.

“Discrimination against people based on their body size is wrong,” Howell says. “We believe that one’s health cannot be determined by looking at the size of their body.  We believe that by eating healthy foods and adding enjoyable movement to our lives, we can live long, productive, healthy lives: these are principles known as Health At Every Size.”

*In Britain, Jo Morley founded Big People UK in 1997,which has more than 700 registered members.

“There are no laws that I am aware of that is against size discrimination in Britain,” Ms Morley says. “Big People UK does not say being fat is good, nor bad. We say that just because you’re fat does not mean you have to face a life of ridicule and unhappiness.”